The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories.”
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and woman and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
The General Assembly,
Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedom set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or
territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
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since the National Aeronautical and Space Administration was established in 1961, NASA has been engaged in an extensive research effort, which, in cooperation with private industry, has transferred technology to the international marketplace. Hundreds of everyday products can be traced back to the space mission. Including cordless electrical tools, airtight food packaging, water purification systems, and even scratch coating for eye glasses.
In addition, many advances in medical technology can be traced back to NASA laboratories. First used to detect flaws in spacecraft, ultrasound is now standard equipment in almost every hospital for diagnosis and assessment of injuries and disease; equipment first used by NASA to transmit images from space to earth is used to assist in cardiac imaging, and lasers first used test satellites are now used in surgical procedures. Under-the-skin implants for the continuous infusion of drugs, and small pacemakers to regulate the heart were originally designed to monitor the physical condition of astronauts in space.
Finally, with the help of images that were obtained during space mission, and NASA technology, archaeologists have been able to explore the earth. Cities lost under desert sands have been located and rediscovered, and the sea floor has been mapped using photographs from outer space.
Human memory, formerly believed to be rather inefficient, is really more sophisticated than that of a computer. Researchers approaching the problem from a variety of points of view have all concluded that there is a great deal more stored in our minds than has been generally supposed: Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon. Proved that by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of specific events in his subjects’ lives. Even dreams and other minor events supposedly forgotten for many years suddenly emerged in detail.
The memory trace is the term for whatever is the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory. Assumed to have been made by structured changes in the brain, the memory trace is not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that we use to speculate about how information presented at a particular time cause performance at a later time. Most theories include the strength of the memory trace as a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. One theory is that the fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brains cells, stimulated by patterns of activity.
Today we’re going to talk about shyness and discuss recent research on ways to help children learn to interact socially.
Many people consider themselves shy. In fact, forty percent of the people who took part in our survey said they were shy ـــ that’s two out of every five people. And there are studies to indicate that the tendency toward shyness may be inherited. But just because certain children are timid doesn’t mean they are doomed to be shy forever. There are things parents, teachers, and the children themselves can do to overcome this tendency ـــ and even to prevent it.
One researcher found that if parents gently push their shy children to try new things, they can help these children become less afraid and less inhibited. Another way to help shy children is to train them in social skills. For example, there are special training groups where children are taught things like looking at other children white talking to them talking about other people’s interests and even smiling
Alfred Bemhard Nobel, a Swedish inventor and philanthropist, bequeathed most of his vast fortune in trust as a fund from which annual prizes could be awarded to individuals and organizations who had achieved the greatest benefit to humanity in a particular year. Originally, there were six classifications for outstanding contributions designated in Nobel’s will including chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and international peace.
The prizes are administered by the Nobel foundation in Stockholm. In 1969, a prizes for economics endowed by the Central Bank of Sweden was added, Candidates for the prizes must be nominated in writing by a qualified authority in the field of competition. Recipients in physics, chemistry, and economics are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; in physiology or medicine by the Caroline Institute; in literature by the Swedish Academy; and in peace by the Norwegian Nobel Committee appointed by Norway’s parliament. The prizes are usually presented in Stockholm on December 10, with the king of Sweden officiating, an appropriate tribute to Alfred Nobel on the anniversary of his death. Each one includes a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash award of about one million dollars.
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Over the past 600 years, English has grown from a language of few speakers to become the dominant language of international communication. English as we know it today emerged around 1350, after having incorporated many elements of French that were introduced following the Norman invasion of 1066. Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England and had not extended even as far as Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade (including slave trade), colonization, and missionary work. Thus, small enclaves of English speakers became established and grew in various parts of the world. As these communities proliferated, English gradually became the primary language of international business, banking, and diplomacy.
Currently, about 80 percent of the information stored on computer systems worldwide is in English Two-thirds of the world’s science writing is in English, and English is the main language of technology, advertising, media, international airports, and air traffic controllers. Today there are more than 700 million English users in the world, and over half of these are normative speakers, constituting the largest number of normative users than any other language in the world.
Throughout history, the search for salt has played an important role in society. Where there was no salt near, it was brought from great distances. Thus, salt became one of the most important articles of early trade. Records show that in areas of scarcity, salt was traded ounce for ounce for gold. Rome’s major highway was called the Via Salaria, that is, the Salt Road Along that road. Roman soldiers transported salt crystals from the salt flats ate Ostia up the Tiber River. In return, they received a salarium or salary, which means to be valuable, derives from the custom of payment during the Empire. The caravan trade of the Sahara was also primarily an exchange of goods for salt. Among ancient people there, to eat salt with another person was an act of friendship. Slaves were often purchased with salt. Salt was no important in Middle Ages that governments retained salt trade as a monopoly, or levied taxes on its purchase. By then, people’s social rank was demonstrated by where they sat at the table above or below the salt.
Even today, in some remote regions of the world, salt is luxury item. In fact, in a few isolated areas of Southeast Asia and Africa, cakes made of salt are still used for money.
Rainforests circle the globe for twenty degrees of latitude on both sides of the equator. In that relatively narrow band of the planet, more than half of all species of plants and animals in the world make their home. Several hundred different varieties of trees may grow in a single-acre, and just one of those trees may be the habitat for more than ten thousand kinds of spiders, ants, and other insects. More species of amphibians, birds insects, mammals, and sepdles live in rainforests than anywhere else on earth.
Unfortunately, half of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed; and at the current rate, another 25 percent will be lost by the year 2000. Scientists estimate that as many as fifty million acres are destroyed annually. In other words, every sixty seconds, one hundred acres of rainforest is being cleared. By the time you finish reading this passage, two hundred acres will have been destroyed! When this happens, constant rains erode the former forest floor, the thin layer of soil no longer supports plant life, and the ecology of the region is altered forever. Thousands of species of plants and animals are condemned to extinction and, since we aren’t able to predict the ramifications of this loss to a delicate global ecology, we don’t know what we may be doing to the future of the human species as well.
It has long been known that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moistuse, the green parts of plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These exchanges are the opposite of those that occur in respiration. The process is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plants cells in the presence of light. In most plants, the water used in photosynthesis is absorbed from the soil by the roots and translocated through the xylem of the root and stem to the leaves. Except for the usually small percentage used in respiration, the oxygen released in the process diffuses out of the leaf into the atmosphere through the stomates. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For each molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released. A summary chemical equation for photosynthesis it:
6CO2 +6H2O4 C6H12O6+6O2
As a result of this process, radiant energy from the sun is stored as chemical energy. In turn, the chemical energy is used to decompose carbon dioxide and water. The products of their decomposition are recombined into a new compound, which is successively built up into more time, a balance of gases is preserved in the atmosphere.